Reading well is time and effort and requires great skill and training.
In both the summary as well as the paraphrase we’ve quoted Curtis’s «clustering together in a dense ball,» a phrase that lies in the centre of her description of wintering honeybees. For all of us to describe this clustering in every language other than Curtis’s could be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
Quoting Authoritative Language
You shall also want to use quotations that lend authority to your projects. When quoting a specialist or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, as well as your readers will have a tendency to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, and your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. For instance, in an essay you could make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden that you might write on the importance of reading well:
It «is a exercise that is noble» writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, «and something that will task the reader more than any exercise that your customs associated with day esteem. It requires a training like the athletes underwent. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.»
By quoting a philosopher that is famous essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not merely do you regard reading to be an art and craft that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, certainly one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the known degree of your projects.
You can even quote to advantage well-respected figures who’ve written or spoken about the subject of one’s paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:
A few scientists — notably James Van Allen, discoverer regarding the Earth’s radiation belts — have decried the trouble regarding the space that is manned and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be much more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, «It seems to be argued any particular one takes away from the other. But before there is a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it really is about $500 million a year.»
Note, first, that into the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks produced by James Van Allen in to the discussion on space flight. In the paragraph that is second Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend legitimacy and authority towards the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both to make certain that their qualifications to speak about them are recognized to all:
James Van Allen, discoverer of this Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut .
The phrases in italics are known as appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information regarding somebody who may be expressed into the following sentence pattern may be made into an appositive phrase:
James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts.
James Van Allen has decried the cost of the manned space program
James Van Allen, discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the trouble regarding the manned space program.
Use appositives to identify authors that you quote.
Incorporating Quotations into the Sentences
Quoting just the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
while you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Guess that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you’ve run into the following, published by Robert Hutchins, former president of this University of Chicago:
If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the universities and colleges themselves. They wish to be institutions that are educational nevertheless they can’t. The storyline of this halfback that is famous only regret, as he bade his coach farewell, was which he had not learned to see and write is most likely exaggerated. But we ought to admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, «friends,» presidents and even professors has had a tendency to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often disregard the fact that a college really should not be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing while the double standard that is educational exist without having the knowledge together with tacit approval, at least, associated with the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as «faculty representatives» on the college boards that are athletic. 4
Guess that using this paragraph that is entire find a gem, a quotable grouping of words which will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the following sentence:
These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.
Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of your sentence that is own once’ve selected the passage you want to quote, work the write my essay for me materials into your paper in as natural and fluid a fashion as you can. Here’s how exactly we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a president that is former of University of Chicago, asserts that «a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.»
Keep in mind that we’ve used an appositive to spot Hutchins. And now we’ve used only the part of the paragraph — a single clause — that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence must not stand by itself — as with the example that is following
Various people linked to the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. «These gentry often forget the proven fact that a college really should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.» But this type of thinking is bad for the university and also worse for the athletes.
Even you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation. Introduce the quotation by attributing the foundation in certain other an element of the sentence — beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:
based on Robert Hutchins, «These gentry often disregard the known proven fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.»
«These gentry,» asserts Robert Hutchins, «often disregard the fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.»
Another alternative is to introduce a quotation that is sentence-long a colon:
But Robert Hutchins disagrees: «These gentry often overlook the fact that a college really should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.»
Use colons and to introduce quotations that are indentedas with the examples above).
When attributing sources, you will need to vary the conventional «states,» «writes,» «says,» an such like. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: «asserts,» «argues,» «maintains,» «insists,» «asks,» as well as «wonders.»
Using Ellipsis Marks
Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage although not its middle — as was the truth as soon as we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here is part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences:
to read through well, this is certainly, to learn true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and something that will task the reader a lot more than any exercise that your customs associated with day esteem. It entails a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of this life time for this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5